Each year, about 11,000 women in the United States learn that they have cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers of the reproductive organs. Most cases of cervical cancer are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV).
Before cervical cancer appears, the cells of the cervix go through precancerous changes known as dysplasia, in which abnormal cells begin to appear in the cervical tissue. An annual Pap test looks for changes in cervical cells that can lead to cervical cancer.
Through increased use of the Pap test, the cervical cancer death rate has greatly declined. Chances of successfully treating cancer are highest when detected early.
There are two main types of cancer of the cervix; each develops from different tissue types. The most common (about 80 to 90%) are squamous cell carcinomas. The other 10 to 20% are adenocarcinomas.
Squamous cell carcinoma develops in the lining of the cervix. There is some controversy over whether patients with adenocarcinoma of the cervix have a worse prognosis than those with the more common squamous cell carcinoma.
Adenocarcinoma develops in gland cells that produce cervical mucus. Some types of adenocarcinoma are aggressive and are associated with a poor prognosis. The most important factor of prognosis is the stage of the cancer, which determines the treatment options and outcomes.
Treatment options are the same regardless if a cervical cancer is classified as squamous or adenocarcinoma.
In its earliest stages, cervical cancer usually does not display any symptoms, which is why regular Pap tests are so important, particularly for sexually active women. Inform your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following symptoms:
Cancer of the cervix is highly preventable. Regular Pap smears not only detect cancerous cells, but also abnormal changes in the cervix that can eventually progress to cancer over a period of 10 to 15 years.
A sexually transmitted virus called the human papillomavirus (HPV) causes almost all cases of cervical cancer. HPV usually goes away by itself, and most people with HPV never even know they have it. And while experts point out that most women infected with HPV will not develop cervical cancer, doctors urge women to be aware of that risk, and to get Pap smears regularly.
HPV can be categorized into two groups:
Low Risk - Two of the low-risk HPV strains are 6 and 11. Some HPV strains can cause genital warts but do not cause cervical cancer. These low-risk strains account for about 90% of genital warts.
High risk - Two high-risk types of HPV, strains 16 and 18, may stimulate the growth of precancerous cells in the cervix. If these abnormal cells are not found and treated, they may become cancerous. They account for about 70% of all cervical cancers and a smaller percentage of vaginal and vulval cancers.
Other Risk Factors Include:
Age: The risk of cervical cancer increases with age and most often is diagnosed in women over the age of 40. However, younger women are often diagnosed with precancerous lesions that require treatment to prevent cancer.
Smoking: Cigarette smoke contains chemicals that damage the body's cells. It increases the risk of precancerous changes in the cervix, especially in women with HPV.
Sexual behavior: Certain types of sexual activity may increase a risk of getting HPV infection such as multiple sexual partners, or high-risk male partners, first intercourse at an early age and using non-barrier birth control methods.
Lack of regular Pap tests: Cervical cancer is more common among women who have no prior Pap smear screening. The Pap test helps doctors find precancerous cells.
Sexually transmitted diseases: Women with an STD have a higher risk of cervical cancer.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure before birth
Weakened immune system: Women who have undergone an organ transplant or take steroids for other reasons have a higher than average risk of developing cervical cancer.
HPV vaccines have the potential for preventing cervical cancer. A new vaccine called Gardasil® offers protection from the virus that causes most cervical cancers by blocking the infection. The drug was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2006.
Routine vaccination is recommended for females ages 11 to 26. The vaccine is most effective when given to girls between the ages of 11 to 12. Three doses of the vaccine are given by injection during a six-month period.
A Pap test, often called a Pap smear, is a screening procedure used to detect abnormal cells in and around the cervix. In this test, the doctor uses a stick or brush to take a few cells from the cervix. An abnormal result could mean inflammation of the cervix, trichomonas or yeast infection, or other causes. In postmenopausal women, the Pap test could detect abnormal glandular cells that could indicate endometrial cancer.
Women should have a Pap test beginning three years after starting vaginal intercourse and no later than age 21.
At age 30, women with three or more consecutive exams with normal results may have a Pap smear performed less frequently. This is dependent on risk factors and should be discussed with the doctor.
Women who have been treated for cervical dysplasia (a precancerous lesion) or cancer may need to have a Pap smear more frequently if recommended by the doctor.
If you have had a hysterectomy, ask your doctor about screening. If you are healthy, had the hysterectomy for a reason other than precancer or cancer, and have normal Pap tests, then you may be screened less frequently. But even if your cervix was removed during your hysterectomy, regular pelvic exams are still recommended to check for precancerous cells in the vaginal and vulva area, especially for those who have been exposed to HPV.
Cervical Cancer Detection
Research to improve detection and screening methods for cervical cancer is ongoing. Some of these advancements may still be in the investigational stage and not yet approved or available.
Because cervical cancer is highly treatable when detected in an early stage, many studies are looking at developing better ways to detect cervical cancer, such as fluorescent spectroscopy. This method uses fluorescent light to detect changes in precancerous cells in the cervix.
A newer Pap test method known as the Thin Prep test transfers a thin layer of cells onto a slide. Because this sample can be preserved, a test for HPV can be done at the same time. (A regular Pap smear tests for the presence of abnormal cells, not the virus.)
Tests & Procedures
If you have symptoms or Pap test results that suggest precancerous cells or cancer of the cervix, your doctor will suggest other procedures to make a diagnosis. The first step is usually colposcopy, in which the doctor examines the cells of the cervix more closely. Another common test to more closely examine the cells is a biopsy, in which a sample of cervical cells is taken for examination.
Colposcopy is a diagnostic test used to evaluate an area of abnormal tissue on the cervix, vagina, or vulva using an instrument called a colposcope. A colposcope looks like a pair of binoculars on a stand. It magnifies tissue so a healthcare practitioner can see abnormalities that cannot be seen with the naked eye.
In a biopsy, your doctor removes a small amount of tissue for examination under a microscope to look for precancerous cells or cancer cells. Most women have the biopsy in the doctor's office, and no anesthesia is needed.
Different types of cervical biopsies include:
Punch biopsy: The tissue sample is removed from the cervix using biopsy forceps, an instrument used to grasp tissue firmly and then remove it. This procedure is usually performed in your gynecologist's office and does not require anesthesia.
Endocervical curettage (ECC): A tissue sample is scraped from an area just past the opening of the cervix using a curette (small, spoon-shaped instrument) or a thin, soft brush. This can be done in your doctor's office and does not require anesthesia.
LEEP (Loop Electro-Surgical Excision Procedure): The LEEP is performed using a small heated wire to remove tissue and precancerous cells from the cervix. This procedure can be done in your doctor's office and requires local anesthesia.
Cone biopsy (also called LEEP cone or cold knife cone biopsy): A cone-shaped sample of tissue is removed from the cervix so that the pathologist can see if abnormal cells are in the tissue beneath the surface of the cervix. This specimen is much bigger than the biopsy done in the office without anesthesia. A sample of tissue can be removed for a cone biopsy using a LEEP cone procedure, which can be done in the doctor's office under local anesthesia, or a knife cone procedure, done in an operating room under local or general anesthesia.
Cystoscopy and Proctoscopy
If advanced cancer is diagnosed and your doctor suspects the cancer may have spread beyond the cervix, a cytoscopy or proctoscopy may be done using a lighted tube to view the inside of the bladder (cystoscopy) or the anus, rectum and lower colon (proctoscopy).
To learn more about the extent of disease and suggest a course of treatment, the doctor may order some of the following imaging tests:
Chest X-ray: This is a picture of the chest that shows your heart, lungs, airway, blood vessels and lymph nodes. A chest X-ray can often show whether cancer has spread to the lungs.
Computed tomography (CT) scan: This diagnostic test uses an X-ray machine and a computer to create detailed pictures of the body, including 3-D images. It is used to detect disease outside the cervix or abnormal organ structure. CT scans also can be used to guide a needle into a mass if a biopsy is needed.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This diagnostic test uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create computerized pictures of the pelvis and abdomen. You may have to be placed in a tube, which can feel confining to people who have a fear of enclosed spaces.
Treatment of cervical cancer will depend on a number of factors, including:
Treating cervical cancer when a woman is pregnant depends on two factors: the stage of pregnancy and the stage of cervical cancer. Treatment may be delayed until the baby is born if a woman is in her third trimester of pregnancy. Treatment may also be delayed in pregnant women if cervical cancer is detected before it has spread.
Small Precancerous Lesions
The following surgical procedures may be used for precancerous lesions or for cancerous tissue that has not spread beyond the cervix.
Cryosurgery (cryotherapy): This surgical procedure uses an instrument to freeze and destroy precancerous tissue.
Laser surgery: This surgical procedure uses a narrow laser beam to destroy precancer cells. This is not used on invasive cancer. A benefit of laser treatment is its precision; it destroys only diseased tissue inside in the cervix.
LEEP (loop electrosurgical excision procedure): This procedure uses electrical current passed through a thin wire hook. This is primarily used on precancerous lesions under local anesthesia. The advantage of this procedure is that more of the tissue can be removed for evaluation.
Cone: A gynecologist uses the same procedure as a cone biopsy to remove all of the cancerous tissue. This procedure can be used in a woman who has a very small cancerous area and who wishes to preserve the ability to have children.
Hysterectomy: This operation removes the uterus and the cervix. This kind of hysterectomy is performed only on women with cervical cancer less than three millimeters in depth.
Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: In this procedure, the fallopian tubes and ovaries are removed at the same time as the hysterectomy. If a woman is close to the age of menopause, her doctor may discuss removing her ovaries and fallopian tubes to reduce the chance that the cancer will recur in one of those organs.
Large Cervical Cancer Lesions
The following surgical procedures may be used for larger cervical cancer lesions (usually up to four to five centimeters in width), but only if the cancer is all within the cervical tissue. If the cancer has spread beyond the cervix, doctors will usually recommend chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy.
Trachealectomy: This procedure removes the cervix and surrounding tissue but not the uterus. It is used for women who have a larger cancerous area but wish to preserve the ability to have children. The procedure may include removal of lymph nodes. Typically patients considered for this procedure have to have tumors less than two centimeters in size.
Radical hysterectomy: The surgeon removes the cervix, uterus, part of the vagina and the tissues surrounding the cervix called the parametria. At the same time, the surgeon also removes nearby lymph nodes. Depending on a woman's age and the size of the tumor, she may also have a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes).
Radiation therapy is used for cancers that have spread beyond the cervix (II, III or IV) or very large lesions (larger than four centimeters).
Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or shrink the tumor. Radiation therapy is used instead of surgery in most cases. However, it is sometimes necessary after surgery if it is discovered that the cancer has spread outside the cervix, or to reduce the risk that a cancer will come back after surgery.
There are two types of radiation therapy:
External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cervical cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a small amount of radioactive material that is delivered directly to the tumor using implants.
Internal radiation therapy implants are inserted through the vagina into the cervix, where they are placed next to the tumor while the patient is under anesthesia. The implants stay in place for a few days.
Chemotherapy uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Chemotherapy can be given by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle. In most cases, it is given to a patient through a vein during an outpatient visit using systemic chemotherapy. The drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body.
Regional chemotherapy is chemotherapy which is placed directly into an organ or a body cavity, such as the abdomen. Almost all cervical cancer patients in good medical condition who are receiving radiation for stage IIA or higher, will be offered chemotherapy in addition to radiation therapy.
New treatments are always being tested in clinical trials and some women with cervical cancer may want to consider participating in one of these research studies. These studies are meant to help improve current cancer treatments or obtain information on new treatments. Search
Cancer is a journey that no one needs to take alone. There are many forms of support to help you through every stage: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship. Whether you meet with other cancer survivors like yourself, use complementary therapies or individual coping mechanisms, support is available. Listed below are just some of the ways to find help and hope.
Getting together with other cancer patients in a support group is a valuable coping tool. Support groups are usually focused on a single disease or topic, such as breast cancer survivors or people coping with life-changing side effects from their cancer or cancer therapy. These groups allow participants to meet others like themselves and seek strength from each other. Most major cities and cancer hospitals offer support groups that meet weekly or monthly. There are also dozens of online support Web sites or message boards for those who may not have access to a traditional meeting.
Complementary therapies are used in conjunction with cancer treatment, in an effort to reduce treatment side effects, ease depression and anxiety and help cancer patients take their mind off the negative aspects of their situation. Complementary therapies may include mind-body exercises like yoga, Tai Chi and Qi gong; visualization or guided imagery; using art or music as therapy and self-expression and traditional Eastern medicine such as acupuncture.
Staying physically active as much as possible during cancer treatment has many positive benefits. Physical activity stimulates the release of endorphins, a hormone that helps elevate mood, as well as decreasing feelings of fatigue.
Exercises for cancer patients can range from simple stretches done in the bed or chair, to more active pursuits such as walking or light gardening work. However, it’s important not to push yourself too hard. Check with your doctor before attempting any physical activity to make sure you are up to it.
Many people find it helpful to keep a journal of their cancer treatment experience. It may be as simple as recording symptoms and side effects into a notebook, or may include personal emotions and opinions about what they may be going through. Journals can be private, like a diary, or shared with loved ones and even strangers.
Increasingly, people are turning to the Internet to share their cancer journey with the world at large and to seek out others with similar experiences. Many cancer patients have begun their own Web log, or “blog” to publicize their battle with cancer. Twitter, a mini-blogging technology that limits posts to 140 characters, has also proven to be a helpful tool for cancer patients to keep friends updated and reach out to others.